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The literacy rate for women in Kerala is one of the highest in all of Asia. Kerala also boasts the highest literacy rate in India. [316] [76][414] There was a significant Jewish community which existed in Kerala until the 20th century, when most of them migrated to Israel. [224] The Central Coir Research Institute was established there in 1959. Annie Mascarene was the first Malayali woman MP. [323]:10–12, There is a tradition of matrilineal inheritance in Kerala, where the mother is the head of the household. Singh, Anjana. Transport services are mainly provided by country craft and passenger vessels. 59. In other states, national highways are grade separated, 60 metres (200 feet) wide with a minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8-lane access-controlled expressways. Altogether, 24% of Kerala is forested. [210]:1 as 11.2% of people are over the age of 60,[209] and due to the low birthrate of 18 per 1,000. It campaigns for increased awareness of LGBT people and sensitisation concerning healthcare services, workplace policies and educational curriculum. Lagoons and lakes are the major components of these backwaters which run parallel to the Arabian Sea. [490] Since the 1980s, actors Mohanlal and Mammootty have dominated the movie industry; Mohanlal has won five National Film Awards (four for acting), while Mammootty has three National Film Awards for acting. [204], After independence, the state was managed as a democratic socialist welfare economy. [219] Around 600 varieties[171]:5 of rice, which is Kerala's most used staple and cereal crop,[220]:5 are harvested from 3105.21 km2; a decline from 5883.4 km2 in 1990. These include five classical dance forms: Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Koodiyattom, Thullal and Krishnanattam, which originated and developed in the temple theatres during the classical period under the patronage of royal houses. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.[15]. [562] In 2006, Kerala attracted 8.5 million tourists, an increase of 23.68% over the previous year, making the state one of the fastest-growing popular destinations in the world. Totally there are 14 districts in Kerala. [493] Resul Pookutty, who is from Kerala, is only the second Indian to win an academy award for sound design, for the breakthrough film Slumdog Millionaire. Kerala cuisine offers a multitude of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes prepared using fish, poultry and red meat with rice a typical accompaniment. [168]:65, Most of the biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. ‘Kera’ means coconut tree and ‘Alam’ stands for land. "A Marxist Paradise For Women?" [228] On 1 October 2011, Kerala became the first state in the country to have at least one banking facility in every village. 40. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. [373] Ayurveda,[374]:13 siddha, and endangered and endemic modes of traditional medicine, including kalari, marmachikitsa and vishavaidyam, are practised. 25. This slogan is used by the Kerala Tourism Department. [380] Kerala has the greatest consumption of alcohol in India. 94. Kuthumkal in Idukki district is the biggest private-sector hydro-electric project of Kerala. [105] However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces in Malabar region; especially from naval attacks under the leadership of Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. [438], The educational system prevailing in the state's schools specifies an initial 10-year course of study, which is divided into three stages: lower primary, upper primary, and secondary school—known as 4+3+3, which signifies the number of years for each stage. Jackfruit is the official fruit of the state. Kozhikode in Kerala had the first woman police station in the state. [393][394] According to some scholars, the Mappilas are the oldest settled Muslim community in South Asia. In 2011–2012, it contributed 63.22% of the state's GDP, agriculture and allied sectors contributed 15.73%, while manufacturing, construction and utilities contributed 21.05%. [40] The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation; so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. [325] The child marriage is lower in Kerala.The Malappuram district has the highest number of child marriage and the number of such cases are increasing in Malappuram. Kollam Airport, established under the Madras Presidency, but since closed, was the first airport in Kerala. Kerala's style of architecture is a unique Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southwest part of India, in its striking contrast to Dravidian architecture which is normally practiced in other parts of South India. (Read Mo re About Kerala) GK Quiz on Kerala : Questions 1 to 10. Its exotic wildlife also makes it an incredible destination for wildlife enthusiasts. There are a lot of things to know about this beautiful Indian state. Tea is available in every Kerala house whenever you seek in plenty. 48. He was instrumental in establishing four mathas at Sringeri, Dwarka, Puri and Jyotirmath. Highest gold consumption in the country Source. [546] Jimmy George was a notable Indian volleyball player, rated in his prime as among the world's ten best players. [155] The state experiences several natural hazards like landslides, floods and droughts. [454] However, the geographical insularity of Kerala from the rest of the country has resulted in the development of a distinctive lifestyle, art, architecture, language, literature and social institutions. Adi Shankara was a religious philosopher who contributed to Hinduism and propagated the philosophy of Advaita. [478] Kerala natanam, Thirayattam,[479] Kaliyattam, Theyyam, Koothu and Padayani are other dance forms associated with the temple culture of the region. Among the most interesting but lesser known facts about Kerala, certainly lies its affinity for coming first. [326][327][328], Kerala has been at the forefront of LGBT issues in India. Agasthyavanam, the first biological park in India, is located in Kerala. Sasthamkota is the largest freshwater lake in Kerala. [381], Hinduism is the most widely professed faith in Kerala, with significant Muslim and Christian minorities. While the monsoon arrives in July in most of the states, it does in Kerala in the first week of June. [459], Many of the temples in Kerala hold festivals on specific days of the year. 89. [529] A sizeable People's science movement has taken root in the state, and such activities as writer's cooperatives are becoming increasingly common. Kerala produced several saints and movements. Valsamma, all three of whom are recipients of the Padma Shri as well as Arjuna Award, while K. M. Beenamol and Anju Bobby George are Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and Arjuna Award winners. The state consumes about 1/5th of the country’s gold. [136] Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands; rugged and cool mountainous terrain, the central mid-lands; rolling hills, and the western lowlands; coastal plains. Kerala is the first state to include panchayats and villages under the National Optical Fiber Network Program’s high-speed broadband connections. [257] Porotta and Biryani are also often found in restaurants in Kerala. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. The peak reaches an incredible height of 8133 feet and is the highest point on the Western Ghats. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. [397][398], Ancient Christian tradition says that Christianity reached the shores of Kerala in 52 CE with the arrival of Thomas the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. 5. [119][120][121] The company forged tributary alliances with Kochi in 1791 and Travancore in 1795. 39. [335][336], As of 2015[update], Kerala has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.770, which is in the "high" category, ranking it first in the country. "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu." 2015. [368] However, Kerala's morbidity rate is higher than that of any other Indian state—118 (rural) and 88 (urban) per 1,000 people. Interesting isn’t? [532] Unlike in many other states, the urban-rural divide is not visible in Kerala with respect to mobile phone penetration. According to the English horticulturist Robert Hart, Kerala is "from the agroforestry point of view, perhaps the world's most advanced country, with an extraordinary intensivity of cultivation of some forest gardens."[272]. 62. [289] National Highways in Kerala are among the narrowest in the country and will remain so for the foreseeable future, as the state government has received an exemption that allows narrow national highways. Jackfruit is the official fruit of the state. Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways operates all railway lines in the state connecting most major towns and cities except those in the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad. Abdur Razzak (1442–43), Niccolò de' Conti (1445), Afanasy Nikitin (1468–74), Ludovico di Varthema (1503–1508), and Duarte Barbosa witnessed the city as one of the major trading centres in the Indian subcontinent where traders from different parts of the world could be seen.[98][99]. Sreekumar, Vayalar Rama Varma, V. Madhusoodanan Nair, M.T. Along with Sikkim, it tops the list of the cleanest states according to the survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO). [483], The development of classical music in Kerala is attributed to the contributions it received from the traditional performance arts associated with the temple culture of Kerala. Quora does allow anonymously asked questions, some of which concern matters of pseudoscience such as, “ ” Is it possible for me to become a successful musician or a recording artist with my horoscope. Three quarters of the land area of Kerala was under thick forest up to 18th century. Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rain. Kozhikode, formerly known as Calicut, was the place where Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed in 1498. 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[497][498][499] The "triumvirate of poets" (Kavithrayam): Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, are recognised for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics, and towards a more lyrical mode. 17. [56]:74[257][258][259][260][261] 80% of India's export quality cashew kernels are prepared in Kollam. Tulu and Kannada are spoken mainly in Kasargod district. [23] The word Kerala is first recorded as Ketalaputo ('son of Chera[s]') in a 3rd-century-BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BCE), one of his edicts pertaining to welfare. [302] The Nilambur–Shoranur line is one of the shortest broad gauge railway lines in India. [88] However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. Construction began in 2012, with the first phase being set up at an estimated cost of ₹51.81 billion (US$730 million). [348][349] This focus was maintained by Kerala's post-independence government. [26] The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for 'lake'. Malayalam films carved a niche for themselves in the Indian film industry with the presentation of social themes. [45][46], A substantial portion of Kerala may have been under the sea in ancient times. [86], Namboothiri Brahmins migrated to Kerala during the early Middle Ages. It is one of the country's oldest state-run public bus transport services. [269], There is a preference for organic products and home farming compared to synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. [409][410][411] As a consequence of centuries of mixing with colonial immigrants, beginning with the Portuguese, Dutch, French, British and other Europeans, there is a community of Anglo-Indians in Kerala of mixed European and Indian parentage or ancestry. [342], According to the 2011 census, Kerala has the highest literacy rate (94%) among Indian states. Anamudi Peak of the Anaimalai range is named the ‘Everest of South India’. 4. [496] Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar and Kerala Varma Valiakoi Thampuran are noted for their contribution to Malayalam prose. [179][180] [218] Nearly half of Kerala's people depend on agriculture alone for income. [233]) By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively.[234]. In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts, including series expansion for trigonometric functions. 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