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The Young Modulus is named after Thomas Young (1773 to 1829) who was a British polymath, contributing to our understanding of optics, physiology, and Egyptology, among other fields. ...Samarpan Rai 30/11/012 Physics HL Investigation on Young Modulus Young's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of an elastic material and is a quantity used to characterize materials.Young's modulus is named after Thomas Young, the 19th century British scientist.It is a very important concept that categorizes metals on basis of their elasticity. Our Objective. For the same stress, the strain of steel is lesser as compared to that of rubber. The machine used in this experiment was an electronic extensometer (see Fig 1) with very high resolution and accuracy which allow the determination of Young‘s modulus and yield point. Measurands, … Modulus of Elasticity Based on ACI 318-14. The reference wire and test wire made of the selected material are hung from the ceiling. and is calculated using the formula below: Where: E = Young's Modulus σ = Stress ε = Strain. An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it. Calculation of Elastic Modulus of Concrete. In solid mechanics, Young’s modulus is defines as the ratio of the longitudinal stress over longitudinal strain, in the range of elasticity the Hook’s law holds (stress is directly proportional to strain). Principle and task A flat bar is supported at two points. we have a mathematical relation between the Bulk modulus(K) and the Youngs modulus(E) is given by . Average values of elastic moduli along the tangential (E T) and radial (E R) axes of wood for samples from a few species are given in the following table as ratios with elastic moduli along the longitudinal (E L) axis. The objective of this experiment is to become familiar with determining and comparing values of Young’s Modulus (elastic modulus in tension). The Theory Before we move ahead, do you know what a Searle’s apparatus is? It permits quick and easy examination of a large number of test samples and guarantees a high level of reliability. In essence, the Young’s modulus of steel is more than the Young’s modulus of rubber. Other bond-node geometries affect these calculations. n the ratio of the stress applied to a body or substance to the resulting strain within the elastic limit. Young’s modulus is named after Thomas Young,19th century ,British scientist. Cast iron: 100 to 160. S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. Now we will consider the different types of bonds that make up materials, and learn their energy functions and typical parameters of these functions so we can estimate the Young’s modulus. The Theory Before we move ahead, do you know what a Searle’s apparatus is? In other words, it is how easily it is bended or stretched. Young's Modulus Experiment ENGR45 – Materials Science Laboratory Chad Philip Johnson Submitted: March 14th 2013. Modulus of elasticity = unit stress/unit strain. Another elastic constant that can be obtained in a tension or compression test wherein the strain along the loading direction and orthogonal to it is called Poisson's ratio, ν . The ratio of stress and strain or modulus of elasticity is found to be a feature, property, or characteristic of the material. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. It is a measure of stiffness of elastic … The reference wire supports a vernier scale, which will measure the extension of the test wire. Measure the deflection y of the free end under load. Young's Modulus - Tensile Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity. With the compressive strength test on the concrete specimen (cylinder of 15 cm diameter and 30 cm length having a volume 15 cm cube), the modulus of elasticity of concrete is calculated with the help of stress and strain graph. The Young’s modulus or Modulus of elasticity is a numerical constant for the material. Young's modulus, also referred to as elastic modulus, tensile modulus, or modulus of elasticity in tension is the ratio of stress-to-strain and is equal to the slope of a stress–strain diagram for the material. Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F1 and F2. Coming back to our comparison of elasticity of steel and rubber, let us understand it in terms of Young’s modulus. It is bent by the action a force acting at its centre. Figure 2. 80 to 90: Aluminium : 60 to 80. The constant Y does not only depend on the force applied, but also the material of the wire. The Young's Modulus (or Elastic Modulus) is in essence the stiffness of a material. These measurands are not measured directly, instead they are determined from other quantities (or measurements). Molecular Structure and Elasticity of Various Solids. The force at elongation (strain) is measured. Copper. The modulus of elasticity formula is simply stress divided by strain. Young's modulus can be expressed as. In the standard test method, ASTM D412, a force is applied to a “dog-bone-shaped” sample of the cured adhesive. Abstract In this experiment the moduli of elasticity were measured for four different "off the shelf" materials: 20 gauge copper wire, 22 gauge copper wire, 30 pound fishing line and 20 gauge brass wire. Elasticity is a property of an object or material which will restore it to its original shape after distortion. Search. Description of Searle’s Apparatus Construction. E Since the modulus of elasticity values are determined from bending, the tabulated values given above includes an effect of shear deflection. It is dependent upon temperature and pressure however. Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F 1 and F 2. Stress is applied to force per unit area, and strain is proportional change in length. To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. This is a specific form of Hooke’s law of elasticity. Material: Modulus of elasticity (E) in GPa i.e. It is a measure of the stiffness of a material that is independent of the particular sample of a substance. The Old Engineer says: Set up a cantilever beam of length L, second area moment I, and apply a load W at the free end. 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